Acute myocardial infarction is a cause of morbidity and mortality. It occurs when myocardial ischemia exceeds a critical threshold and overwhelms myocardial cellular repair mechanism. Such condition which happens for an extended period results in irreversible myocardial cell damage or death. Here is the explanation of the definition of this disease.
The Definition of Acute Myocardial Infarction
Acute myocardial infarction is subcategorized based on anatomic, morphologic, and diagnostic clinical information. Based on the anatomic and morphologic side, there are two types of myocardial infarctions: transmural and non-transmural. The transmural happens when the fullness of affected muscle segments extend from the endocardium through the myocardium to the epicardium. Then, the non-transmural is defined as an area of ischemic necrosis that does not extend like the transmural.
The other source states that this infarction is used when there is evidence of myocardial necrosis in a clinical setting. It has some classifications based on various subtypes. The first type is a spontaneous myocardial infarction that is related to ischemia comes from a primary coronary event. Then, the second type is secondary to ischemia from a supply-and-demand mismatch.
The third type results in sudden cardiac death. The myocardial which is associated with percutaneous coronary intervention or in-stent thrombosis is placed in the fourth type. Last, type 5 is related to coronary artery bypass surgery.
Risk Factors for Acute Myocardial Infarction
It is surprising that, in a year, 450, 000 people in the United States die because of coronary disease. However, the survival rate of the patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction is 95%. These facts show significant improvement in survival and in emergency medical response and treatment strategies.
Six primary risk factors have been identified related to the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. The first is hyperlipidemia. It is caused by the elevation of the cholesterol, LDL, or triglycerides. Then, the second risk factor is diabetes mellitus.
In fact, people with diabetes have a greater risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the heart as well as in other vascular beds. Hypertension is also one of the risk factors. This risk is associated with systolic and diastolic hypertension. The risk of having myocardial infarction can be reduced by having a good control of hypertension with appropriate medication.
Certain components of tobacco and tobacco combustion gases are also popular to damage blood vessel walls. It means that smoking acutely increases platelet thrombus formation. The main target areas of high shear forces are stenotic vessels and independent of aspirin use. There are so many invitations bay governments and health cares of countries to reduce tobacco use.
In fact, the gender of the people also matters. Men have bigger possibilities to have this disease of myocardial infarction. However, while the ages increase, the gender difference is not too significant. The last risk factor of myocardial infarction is the family history. Thus, it is suggested that everyone understand their family history of the premature coronary disease. The genetic components and acquired general health practices may be the cause.
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